THE KOKODA CAMPAIGN ©
Japan's second Attempt to Capture Port Moresby and isolate Australia from the United States
Text and Web-site by James Bowen. Updated 9 June 2010
PACIFIC WAR BRIEFING NOTES
IS IT "KOKODA TRACK" OR "KOKODA TRAIL"?
In this treatment of the Kokoda Campaign, reference will be made to the "Kokoda Track". This was the name by which it was known to Australian soldiers who fought on it in 1942 and to the civilians who were living in Australia's Territory of Papua before the Japanese invaded it on 21 July 1942. Dissemination of war news in the South-West Pacific was controlled in 1942 by the American Supreme Commander, General Douglas MacArthur, and his personal American staff. "Trail" is not Australian usage. "Track" is not American usage. Americans speak of the Oregon Trail and the Santa Fe Trail. There is a very real possibility that the term "Kokoda Trail" was coined by an American member of General MacArthur's public relations staff writing in terms that would be understood by Americans. The Australian War Memorial has opted since 1992 to use the American term "Kokoda Trail" to describe the location of the most important battle fought by Australians on their own soil in World War II. However, the Memorial concedes that both "Track" and "Trail" have now become acceptable usages. Continued at...
THE FORMER SENIOR HISTORIAN AT THE AUSTRALIAN WAR MEMORIAL, DR PETER STANLEY*, DENIES THE GRAVITY OF THE JAPANESE THREAT TO AUSTRALIA IN 1942 AND REJECTS A DESCRIPTION OF AUSTRALIA'S KOKODA HEROES AS "MEN WHO SAVED AUSTRALIA".
The former senior historian at the Australian War Memorial, Dr Peter Stanley, has claimed that the Japanese were not planning to make themselves masters of Australia in 1942 and that any Japanese threat to Australia in 1942 was greatly exaggerated by wartime Prime Minister John Curtin for his own political ends. See the chapter "Confronting 1942 revisionism by Dr Peter Stanley". Pacific War historian James Bowen argues that the Dr Stanley has reached incorrect conclusions about 1942 and Prime Minister Curtin based upon ignorance of Japan's hostile plans for Australia in 1942 and flawed research.
* Author's Note: Dr Stanley's sudden resignation from the Australian War Memorial in December 2006 surprised many. He resigned at the height of the furore over his controversial 1942 revisionism and public challenges to his scholarship in relation to that revisionism. In an interview with Lucinda Schmidt on 17 December 2008, Dr Stanley conceded that he had not handled the 1942 issue sensitively and had "learned from that". In an apparent attempt to explain his lack of understanding of the strategy and dynamics that shaped the course of the Pacific War in 1942, Dr Stanley claimed that he was "not the type of military historian who enjoys 'arid technical analysis' of battle strategy. Rather, he (claimed to be) fascinated by military social history - the human element of how people respond under great duress". In 2008, Dr Stanley declined an invitation to debate publicly with Pacific War historian James Bowen his controversial denial of the gravity of the Japanese threat to Australia in 1942.
Returning from the Battle of Isurava, soldiers of the 39th Australian Infantry Battalion trudge through deep mud on the hellish Kokoda Track. In heavy fighting under appalling conditions, these heroes have played a vital role at Kokoda, Deniki, and Isurava in blunting the momentum of the Japanese advance towards Australia. From right to left: Warrant Officer 2 R. Marsh, Privates G. Palmer, J. Manol, J. Tonkins, A. Forrester, and Gallipoli veteran Staff Sergeant J. Long.....AWM 013288
THE SPIRIT OF KOKODA
If Port Moresby had been captured in 1942, the Japanese would have secured the anchor for their plan (Operation FS) to cut Australia off completely from American support. Much of northern Australia would have been brought within range of Japanese bombers operating from Port Moresby. The course of the Pacific War would almost certainly have been greatly changed. The heroic Australian Diggers who repulsed a much larger, and better equipped Japanese army under conditions of extraordinary hardship on the bloody Kokoda Track in 1942 deserve to be called "the men who saved Australia".
The capture of Port Moresby was of vital importance to Japan's military leaders in 1942. Port Moresby was situated on the southern coast of the Australian Territory of Papua and separated from the Australian mainland by a 500 kilometre stretch of the Coral Sea. Its capture would deny the Allies a forward base from which to launch air attacks on Japan's newly acquired military bases in the Australian Territory of New Guinea. With the whole of the island of New Guinea and the Solomon Islands under Japanese control, Japan could establish forward naval and air bases on these territories from which it could strike deeply into the Australian mainland and intercept military support for Australia from the United States. Port Moresby would also provide Japan with a springboard for an invasion of the Australian mainland when that became feasible. The first attempt by Japan to capture Port Moresby by means of a powerful seaborne invasion force occurred in the first week of May 1942. This attempt was frustrated by a joint United States and Australian naval task force at the Battle of the Coral Sea.
Despite Japan's massive defeat at the Battle of Midway, and the resulting loss of naval superiority over the United States Pacific Fleet, Imperial General Headquarters in Tokyo was determined to press on with the plan to isolate Australia from the United States. The Imperial Japanese Navy had operational responsibility for Japanese military operations in the South-West Pacific area, including the plan to isolate Australia from the United States, but with four of its six best aircraft carriers lost at Midway, and Shokaku badly damaged at the Battle of the Coral Sea, the Japanese Navy was no longer capable of mounting a seaborne invasion of Port Moresby. Faced with this dilemma, Japan's admirals decided to pass the task of capturing Port Moresby to the Japanese Army.
Overview of the Campaign
Cross-section view of the Kokoda Track
Map of the Kokoda Track
"Into the Mouth of Hell" - the 39th Battalion crosses the Mountains
The Battles for Kokoda
The recapture and second defence of Kokoda
The Battle of Isurava - Australia's Thermopylae
Poem - "The 'Chocolate Soldiers' of New Guinea" by A. E. Lockrey
Historical Source Material
= The Australian fighting Withdrawal to Imita Ridge
= The Japanese Retreat
= The Battle of Milne Bay
© Unless otherwise expressly indicated, all material on this web-site is copyright to James Bowen, and all rights are reserved. The copyright in paintings remains with the artists who gave permission for their display on this web-site. The copyright in eyewitness stories remains with the veterans who provided those stories to the Pacific War Web-site (or their families). Subject to the foregoing, the author of this web-site will permit use of not more than 300 words of his text provided that the source is acknowledged. Any institution or person wishing to use more than 300 words of the author's text for any purpose must contact the author at the address below. Unless otherwise indicated, all maps have been produced by the author and their source from this web-site must be acknowledged.
- IMPORTANT NOTICES -
The Papua New Guinea Association of Australia will hold a symposium at Parliament House, Sydney on 17 and 18 September 2014. The relationship between Australia and Papua New Guinea is very important, and we should always remember the vital assistance provided to our troops on the Kokoda Track in 1942 by the wonderful Fuzzy Wuzzy Angels. As Convener (Government, International Relations and Education) of the initial Battle for Australia Commemoration Committee, I invited His Excellency the Papua New Guinea High Commissioner to Australia, Mr Renagi R. Lohia, CBE, to participate on behalf of his government in the first commemoration of the Battle for Australia at the Shrine of Remembrance in 1999. I was delighted to see the flag of Papua New Guinea flying beside the Australian and American flags at this first commemoration of the Battle for Australia in 1999. I commend this symposium to members of the Battle for Australia Historical Society.
Convener, Battle for Australia Historical Society
PNGAA SYMPOSIUM 17 - 18 Sept. 2014
NSW Parliament House, Macquarie Street, Sydney - Hosted by PNGAA and Charlie Lynn MLC
From Pacific WW1 battlefield to Pacific Powers: A Century of Australia Papua New Guinea Relations
To Remember – To Acknowledge – To Educate and inform our futures.
In association with Anzac Centenary commemoration.
To review the relationships between Australia and PNG over the century from Australia’s first military engagement in WWI at Bitapaka, the administration of New Guinea as a Mandated Territory, the Pacific War, the continuing influence through to Independence; to discuss Australia’s ongoing connections – commercial, social and cultural - before looking to the challenges of now and the future.
The PNGAA Management Committee has agreed to hold a Symposium in September 2014 to reflect 100 years of the Australian/PNG relationship. This major event will be held at the NSW Parliament House in Sydney, with assistance from PNGAA member, the Hon Charlie Lynn MLC.
The Symposium will be held in conjunction with the beginning of the Anzac Centenary, which marks 100 years since Australia’s involvement in the First World War and the anniversary of the centenary of the Australian conflict at Bita Paka, East New Britain Province PNG on 11 September 1914.
Australian troops, the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force (ANMEF) were landed to capture the wireless station at Bitapaka. Six Australians died. A further 35 Australians died when the submarine, AEI, disappeared off the coast of Rabaul on 14 September 1914. Six weeks later a convoy of ships that carried the Australian Imperial Force and New Zealand Expeditionary Force to the First World War in Europe departed from Albany in Western Australia.
Our PNGAA members have shared much of that history and retain a wealth of knowledge. The 2014 Symposium will have significant relevance to all our members and to interested others - we look forward to your interest.
Please watch our PNGAA website or email: firstname.lastname@example.org for further details.
Papua New Guinea Association of Australia: www.pngaa.net
DO YOU WISH TO CONTACT THE AUTHOR/WEBMASTER?
The author/webmaster welcomes constructive advice or criticism and may be contacted by electronic mail at:
The use of an image to display this contact email is necessary because hot-linked email addresses are able to produce a continuing flood of unsolicited junk mail, or "spam".